Александр Невский
 

Summary

Krivocheev Jurij, Sokolov Alexandr (Saint-Petersburg). Academician M.N. Tikhomirov and General G.N. Karaev: in search a site of the Battle of the Ice. Attracting a large number of archival materials allows the authors to present the circumstances of the complex expedition activities of the Battle of the Ice place research in 1955—1961.

Arakčeev Vladimir (Pskov). The Battle of the Ice: Reconstruction of the chronology of the campaign of Alexander Nevsky. In order to recreate the course of Alexander Nevsky's military campaign in 1241—1242 the author uses the method of identifying similarities between the campaign and the Russian-Livonian armed conflicts in the second half of the XV century.

Salmin Sergej (Pskov). Once again on the Battle of the Ice: unrecorded realities. Based on a wide range of sources the author makes the significant changes in the established notions about the campaign of Alexander Nevsky in the spring of 1242 and the Battle of the Ice. They concern mainly the route of the Russian forces, the strategic calculations of the prince and the operational tactics used by the Livonian and the Russian, sides during the battle.

Selart Anti (Tartu). The Battle of the Ice in 1242. The paper presents a shortened and slightly reworked Russian version of the relevant chapter from the monograph «Livland und die Rus' im 13. Jahrhundert» (Cologne 2007). The political background of the battle consisted of internal conflicts in Pskov between the prince Alexanded Yaroslavich («Nevskii») and his rivals. The latter party had already traditional political ties in Livonia, especially in the bishopric of Tartu. The Teutonic Order probably played in the events on the Pskov-Livonian border in 1240—1242 merely a secondary role. It is an anachronistic exaggeration indeed to see in these local political developments a conflict between the «West» and the «East», or designate the battle as a turning point of the ecclesiastical history of relations between the Catholic and the Orthodox churches.

Khrustalev Denis (Saint-Petersburg). The Battle of the Ice and the status of Pskov: In article the analysis of sources of the status of Pskov in relation to Novgorod in the XIII century is made. Processed by the information of primary sources, which rarely employed for this purpose in the national historiography: Thе Livonian Chronicle of Henry and other Western sources. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of Pskov with the Novgorodian prince in 1228, as well as the peace treaty concluded between Novgorod and the Livonian Germans after the Battle of the Ice. It can be argued that the community of Pskov was dependent on Novgorod, at least in the choice of the prince and foreign policy, and the first princes of Pskov (Vladimir, Dovmont) were not sovereigns in Pskov.

Dirks Bernhard (Hamburg). War and peace in a relationship Livonia with Russian lands. The analysis of the Livonian Germans characteristics in Novgorod and Pskov chronicles leads to the conclusion that there was no the irreconcilable antagonism between the Germans and the Russian and there were various forms of their relationship in the XIII century. Along with the armed conflicts caused primarily due to a competition for the right to collect tribute from the local population. Bilateral co-operation agreements including the organizing of joint military campaigns were widespread.

Konoplenko Andrej (Saratow). The presented article investigates the conquests of the South Estonia by German Crusaders in 1217—1224. The article proves the thesis about correlation of german-russian confrontation, territorial and legal mutual relations of the Order of Swordbrothers and Livonian bishops in this region. Special significance is given to the analysis of the warfare on the South Estonian territory. A conclusion on stipulation of the admission of the rights of bishops on the part of south Estonian lands is made. The reason of it is the incapability of the Order of Swordbrothers to struggle all by itself with military pressure of Novgorod and Pskov. The researcher resumes that Russian-Livonian agreement in 1224 put an end to active phase of separation of spheres of influence in Livonia and meet the interests of both countries.

Gansowska Maja (Warszawa). Ezel in the first half of the XIII century. The art icle provides a detailed description of methods of feudal development of Ezel (Saaremaa) by German landsgerrami in the first half of the XIII century. They expected the recognition of substantial autonomy of the local people whose dependence manifested itself mainly in the obligation of delivery of the annual tribute. So gentle handling is not only due to economic and political weakness of Ezel bishop but to the participation of the bishop and the Teutonic Order in the fight for the Izhorskaya land.

Baranov Alexandr (Berlin). The Conquest of Courland by the Teutonic Order, 1241—1242. The article describes the first major military campaign of the Teutonic Order in Livonia after incorporation of the Swordbrothers in 1237. The primary stage of successful conquest of Courland in the years 1241—1242 was completed by legal struggle of the Teutonic Knights for the legitimization of their possession of the conquered territory. Military campaign of the Order in Courland was characterized by a powerful opening blow of almost all available forces against the enemy, a construction of the castle to control the conquered areas and a systematic further assault on pockets of resistance, repeating well-established methods in Prussia.

Ustinova Anastasija (Lipezk). Pope Gregory IX and the Crusades in the Baltic. The content of the Bull of Gregory IX in 1236 which proclaimed the crusade shows that his aim was Christianization of Izhora and the Finns but not the conquest of the Russian lands. The Livonia campaigns near Pskov in 1240—1241 had nothing to do with the program. During this period the Pope had hoped to the Orthodox princes and their subjects conversion to the Catholic faith with peaceful way and had intended to use them against the Mongols.

Bakhtin Anatolij (Kaliningrad). The problem of the German Order domestic and foreign policy at the end of 1230th — the beginning of 1240th in Prussia and Livonia. In the article, the problem of the German Order domestic and foreign policy at the end of 1230th — the beginning of 1240th in Prussia and Livonia is touched upon. For better understanding, the article presents some information about the initial period of Prussia conquest, about the situation in the Order after Germann fon Salza's death and about some attempts which the Order made on the theatre of the Mediterranean, in the Holly Land and in Spain. The reasons why the German Order had to unite with the Order of the Sword in Livonia and some problems which it came across there with are mentioned. The question of Novgorod and Pskov and some Russian dukes' policy which brought to the aggressive actions from Dorpatish episcopacy is shortly touched upon. As a result of this confrontation, the German Order in Livonia was involved by bishop into the battles with the Russians ending by its defeat on the 9th of April, 1242 at the Tchudskoe lake (Peipus).

Bessudnova Marina (Lipezk). Teutonic Order in Livonia at the initial stage of its existence (1237—1270). By the beginning of the Russian-Livonian War in 1240—1242 the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order was going through a moment of crisis caused by the rearrangement of its internal organization after the merger with the Order of the Sword, by changing the order of the Knights' acquisition, loss of northern Estonia and the relocation of the main theater of the war in Kurland. In the organization's 1240—1241 campaigns against the Russian land management order, is not likely to participate. They were the result of arbitrary actions of the Knights of number of northern convents, which were dominated by the former platypus.

Salmina Elena, Salmin Sergej (Pskov). Archaeological evidence and the chronicles of hostilities first quarter of the XIII century Zavelich'e medieval Pskov. The article is devoted to the archaeological findings related to the military operations on the territory of medieval Pskov. Arising as a result of armed conflicts the horizons of desolation Zapskovye, Zavelich'e and territories Roundabout City were also stadied.

Pezhemskij Denis (Moskau). Anthropology of the urban and rural population of the Pskov-Livonia porubezh'e. The study captures the lack of sharp anthropological boundaries in the areas of the Livonian-Russian contacts and mottled anthropological composition of the population in the border areas. This suggests that the nature of the resettlement of the nations had special significance in establishing the Russian-Livonian borders, so that they were left permeable on both sides.

Bessudnova Marina (Lipezk), Kun Evgenij (Velikij Novgorod). Trade policy Livonian landsgerrov at the initial stage of development of Western European trade Veliky Novgorod. Not only the mutual interest and the convenient communication but also Livonian landesgerr trade politics that had a need for continuous and intensive introduction to Livonia human and material resources contributed to Russian-Livonian trade in the XIII century. The development of, but also landsgerrov that. Livonian could not act against the interests of the North German cities and destroy the Novgorod-German contacts but although was able to effectively use them in their politics with trade embargo.

Selesnev Jurij (Voronež). Prince Alexander of Kostroma (Nevsky) at the court of the Tartar Khan. It considered the problem of the number of Prince Alexander (Nevsky) trips to the Tartar Khan rate and their temporal duration that makes it possible to judge the nature including the Prince in the Horde's statehood and the degree of dependence of the Russian principalities on the Horde in 1240—1260.

Sekretar' Ludmila (Velikij Novgorod). Sekretar' Ludmila (Velikij Novgorod). Alexander Nevsky and St. Anthony Monastery of Novgorod. The article is dedicated to the honoring traditions of Alexander Nevsky in Great-Novgorod Monastery of St. Anthon the formation of which was carried out in the interests of the individuals, the monastery and public policy.

Boldyrev Roman (Lipezk). The political struggle in Pskov and its role in preparing a campaign of the Livonian Order in the Russian land. Disagreements with Novgorod Pskov pushed to establish an alliance with Livonians and joint action against Novgorod. This made Pskov weak link in the defense of the western Russian borders.

Končakova Elisaveta (Lipezk). Battle on the Ice in the reflection of hagiography and Pskov-Novgorod chronicle tradition. Historiographical image of the Battle on the Ice is based, primarily, on the evidence of such a biased source as the «Life of Alexander Nevsky», and more objective descriptions contained in chronicles used by historians as an accessory.

Bessudnov Daniil (Lipezk). The idealization of the image of Alexander Nevsky in Russian historiography. The image of Alexander Nevsky in many ways continues to maintain ideal nature, which he has acquired over a long period of functioning as an ideological and propaganda tools during the numerous political campaigns.

Shebanova Alla (Lipezk). St. Alexander Nevsky in Russian historical and Church monumental paintings of the XIX—XXI centuries. The image of Alexander Nevsky found a bright reflection in the artists' work of 19th-21st centuries, who created masterpieces devoted to the personality of Saint Alexander Nevsky and episodes from the life of blessed Prince. Effect of the composition, picturesqueness, masterful image of surroundings and historical details are main qualities of paintings by Russian artists, which reflected the significance and grandeur of the great man's image.

 
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